There is much controversy concerning how much visual electronic media use is appropriate for children. According to the longitudinal study conducted by Christakis and his colleagues, they found that infants and toddlers who watched more television before age 3 had more attention deficit around age 7. However, they also found that educational television was not associated with attention problems later in childhood but that television for entertainment was. Also, there has been a link between slow language development and watching educational shows due to less interactions with the caregiver. There are some advantages for children using computers and other electronics such as computer skills needed for academic success and future employment. There are many advantages and disadvantages so it is important for parents to find a balance for their child’s use of electronic devices.


There are 4 parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. Within the show, Parenthood, Adam and Kristina Braverman exhibit the authoritative parenting style. Within this parenting style, the parent openly shows affection for their children but at the same time have structure and behavioral expectations with consequences. The Bravermans give their children clear rules and expectations but they also create an environment for the children to express their feelings and concerns. This is seen through the Bravermans allowing the children to voice their feelings and concerns of their rules and the parents being willing to allow the conversation. In doing this, it supports the children’s autonomy and individuality; while, still having clear boundaries between the parent and child.


Reflecting on the New York Longitudinal Study (1977), there were four temperament types found including: Difficult babies, Easy babies, Slow-to-warm-up babies, and a group that varied greatly in their traits. How the caregivers interact and respond with their child considering their temperament can effect their development. The infant’s temperament can affect how the caregiver responds to the infant making the parenting more difficult or easier. Through the study it is shown that caregivers who were consistent in their care for their “Difficult baby”, the infant was less likely to have adjustment problems in the future. Also, children with an easier temperament may be able to respond to numerous different levels of responsiveness from the caregiver (145).

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals. Harlow: Pearson Education.


There is a trend of decreasing play activity from school schedules in exchange for more academics. There are numerous ways that this might affect children’s learning. It is found that when toddlers and preschoolers engage in exploratory play, there are great benefits to their cognition. For example, in playing with a toy, they can learn concepts such as spatial relations or numerical concepts through examining and manipulating the toy. Another type of play that is beneficial to young children is pretend play. When school age children engage in pretend play, there is much preparation and talking through who will play what role. Through pretend play, children can grow in their theory of mind. In addition, through play children can continually get feedback and the views of other children in order to assimilate and accommodate to views of other children which can advance their theory of mind.

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